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Update the Linux Image - Ixora Carrier Board - Apalis TK1

 

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Overview

In this how-to section, you will update to the latest pre-built Linux image provided by Toradex.

In this module you will:

  • Format an SD card.
  • Use an SD card to flash the new image to the module.
  • Access the bootloader (U-Boot).
  • Flash a new Linux image to the module.

Materials Required

The following table lists the bill of materials required:

Bill of materials
Micro SD card with more than 2GB

Note: The following steps are meant to be run in the development workstation, and not on the target module, unless otherwise stated. Note: Whenever there is a reference to SD card, it means the micro SD card plus an adapter connected to the host machine, unless otherwise noted.

Step 1

Install the prerequisites for generating the SD card:

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install dosfstools e2fsprogs gawk mtools parted
sudo apt-get install zlib1g:i386 liblzo2-2:i386 libuuid1:i386 libusb-1.0-0:i386
sudo apt-get install gparted

Step 2

Before inserting the SD card in your host computer, list the hard-disks and partitions being used by your system. See the example below:

user@host:~$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev 3,9G 0 3,9G 0% /dev
tmpfs 792M 50M 743M 7% /run
/dev/sda7 42G 30G 10G 75% /
tmpfs 3,9G 145M 3,8G 4% /dev/shm
tmpfs 5,0M 8,0K 5,0M 1% /run/lock
tmpfs 3,9G 0 3,9G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda5 922M 340M 520M 40% /boot
/dev/sda8 178G 28G 141G 17% /usr/local
/dev/sdb5 620G 558G 31G 95% /home
tmpfs 792M 92K 792M 1% /run/user/1000

Notice that there are two hard-disks: /dev/sda and /dev/sdb. The indexes list different partitions inside the disks and can be ignored.

Step 3

Insert the SD card in the host computer. A pop-up message should appear. Select the option Do Nothing, as illustrated in the picture below:


  • Select *do nothing* after SD card insertion

    Select *do nothing* after SD card insertion

Notice that some SD cards have a physical lock that enables read-only mode, therefore you have to make sure this lock is not enabled. If the lock is enabled, further steps from this how-to section will not work.

Step 4

List the hard-disks and partitions being used by your system. See the example below:

user@host:~$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev 3,9G 0 3,9G 0% /dev
tmpfs 792M 50M 743M 7% /run
/dev/sda7 42G 30G 10G 75% /
tmpfs 3,9G 145M 3,8G 4% /dev/shm
tmpfs 5,0M 8,0K 5,0M 1% /run/lock
tmpfs 3,9G 0 3,9G 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda5 922M 340M 520M 40% /boot
/dev/sda8 178G 28G 141G 17% /usr/local
/dev/sdb5 620G 558G 31G 95% /home
tmpfs 792M 92K 792M 1% /run/user/1000
/dev/mmcblk0p1 7,5G 296M 7,2G 4% /media/<user>/3E18-AADE

Notice that there is a new device, /dev/mmcblk0, and this is the SD card.

If you use an SD card to USB adapter, your device may be listed as /dev/sdX, being X a character that depends on how many disks your system have. For the computer from the exemple, the device is /dev/sdc:

/dev/sdc1 7,5G 296M 7,2G 4% /media/<user>/3E18-AADE

Attention: Proceed carefully through the next steps. If you use the wrong device, you will erase the computer hard-disk and permanently lose data.

Step 5

Note: The following steps assume the SD card is listed as /dev/mmcblk0. Please adjust the instructions accordingly.

Warning: Backup your SD card data. The SD card will be formatted and all data will be lost.

Start gparted from command-line using the SD card device as an argument:

sudo gparted /dev/mmcblk0

A window such as presented in the figure below will open. In the top-right corner of the window, only the SD card device must be listed:


  • Gparted GUI

    Gparted GUI

Warning: If you do not pass the SD card as an argument to gparted, all your drives will be listed and, therefore, you are more prone to formatting your machine's HD.

Step 6

From the Partition menu, select the Unmount option:


  • Unmount the SD card

    Unmount the SD card

Step 7

Delete all of the partitions from the SD card, by using the option Delete from the menu Partition:


  • Delete the current SD card partitions

    Delete the current SD card partitions

Step 8

From the Partition menu, select the New option. A new window will appear:


  • Create new partition

    Create new partition

Step 9

From the File system drop-down menu, select the fat32 option:


  • Select FAT32 file system

    Select FAT32 file system

Also create a label for your partition, such as data. This is not mandatory, but when the system automatically mounts the SD card, it will use this label as the name of the directory where the device will be mounted.

Step 10

Start the process by clicking the green check button Apply All operations, and acknowledge the warning message:


  • Apply all operations

    Apply all operations


  • Acknowledge warning message

    Acknowledge warning message

A window will display information during the process. Just wait until it finishes:


  • Formatting SD card

    Formatting SD card

In the end, you must have a Gparted window such as the one below. You can then close Gparted.


  • SD card successfully formatted

    SD card successfully formatted

Step 11

Mount the SD card. Two easy ways of doing it are: - Either to click the SD card icon in the launcher to the left of the screen, or - Open the files manager and click the SD card partition label listed at the left side of the window.

Both options are illustrated in the figure below:


  • Mount the SD card

    Mount the SD card

Notice that the default mount path for Ubuntu is:

/media/<user>/<partition_label>

Where user is the user you are logged in, and partition_label is the label chosen at step 10, or a random alphanumeric value if the label was left blank.

Step 12

Download the pre-built Linux image. Either click here or, from command-line, execute the following command:

wget http://developer1.toradex.com/files/toradex-dev/uploads/media/Colibri/Linux/Images/Apalis-TK1_LXDE-Image_2.7b2-20170410.tar.bz2

Note: This image uses a kernel based in the L4T kernel provided by Nvidia. There is also an image that is built with mainline kernel support. It is available here.

Step 13

Extract the compressed file contents with root privileges:

Note: You must execute as root to preserve the target root filesystem permissions.

sudo tar xjvf Apalis-TK1_LXDE-Image_2.7b2-20170410.tar.bz2

Step 14

To flash the SD card, enter the Linux image directory and run the update.sh script:

cd Apalis-TK1_LXDE-Image_2.7.2
./update.sh -o /media/<user>/<partition_label>/

Step 15

Unmount the SD card and remove it from the development workstation:

umount /media/<user>/<partition_label>/

Step 16

Insert the micro SD card in the SD/MMC connector, as illustrated. Notice that for this step, the SD/USB adapter is not required:


  • Micro SD card slot highlighted

    Micro SD card slot highlighted

Step 17

Make sure that you have a working serial terminal application on your host machine.

Note: You can go back to the last section if there are any doubts regarding the serial terminal application and its configuration.

Simultaneously apply power to the embedded system and press any key in your keyboard a few times, while focused in the serial terminal. If you are successful, this procedure will stop the bootloader and you will have a terminal with the following prompt:

Apalis TK1 #

Note: If you press any key too late, the system will start booting. Power-off and try again.

Step 18

To update the system, run the commands:

run setupdate
run update

  • Updating the module

    Updating the module

After a while, the system will boot with the updated Linux image and you will see the login message:


  • Login to the Linux terminal

    Login to the Linux terminal

Note: The "resizing filesystem" messages are expected and happen only on the first boot after the update.